Colon Cancer Explained
Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or the rectum. These cancers can also be named colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they start. Colon cancer and rectal cancer are often grouped together because they have many features in common. Cancer starts when cells in the body start to grow out of control.
To understand colorectal cancer, it helps to know about the normal structure and function of the colon and rectum. The colon and rectum make up the large intestine (or large bowel), which is part of the digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal (GI) system (see illustration below).
As colon cancer progresses, it can grow through your colon and extend to nearby structures. The most advanced stage of colon cancer (stage IV) indicates cancer has spread to other areas of the body, such as the liver or lungs. If you’ve been diagnosed with colon cancer, your doctor may recommend tests to determine the extent (stage) of your cancer.